Drama: Qin Qiang
Native Title: 秦腔
Also Known As:
Screenwriter: Shen Jie
Director: Zhang Yong Xin
Aired: 2022 – ?
Zhang Yong Xin
The emergence and development of Qin Opera has a profound historical origin and a profound cultural background. At each stage of the development and dissemination of Qin Opera, there is a unique cultural background, which is deeply branded with a distinct imprint of the times.
Qin Opera is a folk song and dance of the Han nationality that originated in ancient Shaanxi and Gansu . It grew up in Chang’an, the political, economic and cultural center of ancient China. “Qin”, from which the Qin Opera got its name. Because the jujube wood bangzi is used as a musical instrument for the festival, it is also called “bangzi tune”, and because it makes a “sudden” sound when hitting the festival with the bang, it is commonly known as “桄桄子”.
The Qing Dynasty Li Diaoyuan ‘s ” Yucun Opera ” said: “It is customary that Qian’s family is decorated with Baiqiu and has Qin Opera. It started in Shaanxi, with bang as the board, and the Yueqin responds to it. It is called Luantan.” “Luantan” has many meanings in Chinese opera tunes. In the past, operas other than Kunqu Opera and Gaoqiang were called “Lantan”, and Peking Opera was called “Lantan”. Nomenclature, such as Wenzhou Luantan and Hebei Luantan, are still more often used as a general term for the Bangziqiang system with Qinqiang as the first and the main.
The Qin Opera has a long history. In the legendary manuscript of “The Lotus in the Bowl” in the Wanli Period (1573-1620) of the Ming Dynasty, there is a section of lyrics that is sung in the singing style of “Second Criminals of the Western Qin Opera”, and they are all in the seven-character style of the upper and lower sentences. Qinqiang was not only formed at that time or before, but also spread to other places.
However, there are different theories about its origin. Generally speaking, there are three theories about its origin, which were formed in the Qin Dynasty (or pre-Qin), formed in the Tang Dynasty, and formed in the Ming Dynasty. “The Lotus in the Bowl” is the work of an anonymous person in the south of the Yangtze River, which proves that it has spread to the south of the Yangtze River. Jiangnan is far away from Shaanxi, and it takes time to spread. According to this, Qin Opera should have been formed in the middle of Ming Dynasty. According to another survey, the earliest Qin Opera class in the Ming Dynasty was the Huaqing class founded by Zhou Zhiren, which was famous in Gansu and Shaanxi. Later, Qin Opera developed into four routes of East, West, Central and South in Shaanxi Province. The east road is Tongzhou Bangzi, the west road is Xifu Qin Opera, the south road has evolved into Han Diao Jiejie, and the middle road is Xi’an Luantan, which is commonly known as Qin Opera today. Qin Opera art has a long history. According to legend, Li Longji, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, once set up a pear garden to train singing children, and sang both court music and folk songs. Li Guinian, a musician in Liyuan , was originally a Shaanxi folk artist. His “King of Qin Breaking the Array” was called Qin Wangqiang, or “Qinqiang” for short. This is probably the earliest Qin Opera music. After that, Qin Opera was influenced by Song Ci, and it became more and more perfect in terms of content and form. During the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, Qin Opera in Gansu and Shaanxi gradually evolved into Bangzi Opera. During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, Wei Changsheng , a famous actor in Qin Opera, came to Beijing from Shu and made a sensation in the capital with his moving accent, popular words and superb acting skills. Today, the Xipi Liushui section of Peking Opera comes from Qin Opera.
Qin Opera can be divided into two routes: the west route flows into Sichuan and becomes Bangzi; the east route is Jin Opera in Shanxi, Henan Opera in Henan, and Bangzi in Hebei. Qinqiang is also known as “Qinsheng”, “Lantan” and “Bangziqiang”. It is commonly known as “Grand Opera” among the people. After the middle of the Qing Dynasty, Beijing and other places were also known as “West Qin Opera” and “Shan Shaan Bangzi”. In Shaanxi, Qin Opera has evolved into four styles due to the different dialects and pronunciations of different places: popular in the Tongzhou (now Dali) area of Guandong Prefecture, called “Tongzhou Bangzi” (that is, Donglu Qin Opera); popular in China It is called “Xi’an Luantan” (that is, the Middle Road Qin Opera); the one popular in the Fengxiang area of Xifu is called “Xifu Qinqiang” (that is, the West Road Qin Opera); the one popular in the Hanzhong area is called “Han Diao Jiejie” (ie South Road Qin Opera). Qin Opera is widely spread, prevalent in Guanzhong, Shangluo, and Hanzhong in Shaanxi. The popular area reaches Longzhou in the west, Tongguan in the east, Yulin in the north, Ningqiang in the south, and has been popular in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Lu, Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Qing, Ning, Xin, Tibet and other provinces. After 1949, it also spread to Taiwan and as far as Kyrgyzstan.
Qinqiang facial makeup
Qinqiang mask (8 photos)
The Qing Dynasty was the prosperous period of Qin Opera. The heyday of Qin Opera was during the Qianlong period (1736-1795). During this period, there were Qin Opera clubs in many parts of the country. In Xi’an alone, there were thirty-six Qin Opera clubs, such as Baofu Class, Jiangdong Class, Shuangxi Opera Class, etc. Zhai Class, Splendid Class, etc. Zhang Dingwang ‘s “Theory of Qin Opera” appeared around the 44th year of Emperor Kangxi (1705) , during the Qianlong period (1736-1795), Yan Changming’s “Qin Yunxieying Xiaoshu “, Wu Changyuan ‘s “Yanlan Xiaoshu”, Zhou Yuanding’s “Shadow Theatre”, They are all influential works on Qin Opera. “Qin Yunxieying Small Score” contains: “There are thirty-six famous people in Xi’an Music Club.” These clubs are all Qin Opera clubs, and each club has a group of influential artists. During the Qianlong and Jiaqing years (1736-1820), Qin Opera actor Wei Changsheng performed in Beijing three times, leaving the six major classes of Beijing Opera unattended, and many Kunqu Opera and Beijing Opera artists switched to Qin Opera. For more than half a century, Qin Opera has almost always been an important opera genre on the stage in Beijing, and it is also a genre popular in many parts of the country. According to the statistics of the relevant historical data of the Qing Dynasty, at that time, except for Shanhaiguan, the three northeastern provinces did not have the footprints of Qin Opera, but all other provinces were popular. In the process of becoming popular, Qin Opera combined with other forms of opera and folk art, and gradually evolved into a variety of Bangzi voice operas in various places. The popularity of Qin Opera was replaced and gradually reduced. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, it had become a popular local opera in the northwest area.
In 1912, the Shaanxi Yisu Society was established in Xi’an with the purpose of “changing customs and customs”. It carried out some innovations in Qin Opera repertoire, music singing, performing arts, directing, stage design, etc., and produced a large number of performances reflecting the new trends of the bourgeois democratic revolution. repertoire. Under this influence, Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin, Gansu, Ningxia and other places have successively established opera groups imitating the Shaanxi Yisu Society. Such as the Yisu Society in Shandong, Hebei, and Tianjin, the Chemical Society in Gansu, the Pingle Society, and the Juemin Society in Ningxia. Yisu Society has performed twice in Peiping, Wuhan and Gansu. There are also Qin Opera class clubs such as Sanyi Club established successively in Xi’an.
During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, Qin Opera artists in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region made bold explorations to express the real life of the revolution in opera and to shape the heroic image of workers, peasants and soldiers. In July 1938, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region People’s Theatre Company closely cooperated with the revolutionary struggle in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the War of Liberation, and created and rehearsed a large number of new Qin Opera plays, such as Blood and Tears. Comrade Peng Dehuai said in his letter to Ma Jianling , the author of “Blood and Tears” : “A warm welcome to the poor working people and revolutionary fighters, and a powerful weapon for mobilizing the masses to organize.” The People’s Artist” title, and the People’s Theatre Troupe won the “Extraordinary Model” award flag.
After the founding of New China, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces and districts successively established professional Qin Opera troupes at or above the county level. By the early 1980s, there were more than 300 opera troupes in total. The provincial troupes included Shaanxi Opera. Qin Opera Troupe of the Academy, Qin Opera Troupe of Gansu Province, Qin Opera Troupe of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Qin Opera Troupe of Qinghai Province (later changed to Xining Qin Opera Troupe), and Mengjin Opera Troupe of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. In addition, opera schools have been established in various places, accumulating a large number of human resources for the prosperity of Qin Opera art.
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